Ireland; (Angus, Oengus of the Bruig, Aonghus, Angus Mac Oc) God of youth, love, and beauty. One of the Tuatha De Danann, his name means "young son." He had a harp that made irresistible music, and his kisses turned into birds that carried messages of love. His brugh, underground fairy palace, was on the banks of the Boyne River. Son of the Dagda and 'the wife of Elcmar'. He is associated with the valley of the River Boyne. Aengus was said to have dreamed of a beautiful maiden, for whom he searched all Ireland. He eventually found her, named Caer, chained to 150 maidens who were destined to turn into swans at the feast of Samhain (about Nov. 1). Aengus transformed himself into a swan and was so united with Caer, who followed him back to his palace at Brugh na Boinne on the River Boyne (modern New Grange).Afallach
Afallach was the son of Lludd Llaw Ereint (the Silver-Handed). He was one of the Celtic gods of the Underworld. He ruled Avalon where he lived with his daughter, Modron, and her nine sisters. Avalon was like the Celtic heaven, a peaceful island far away where apples grew and after which it became named. It is, of course, best known as the place where the High-King Arthwyr was taken after he was fatally wounded at the Battle of Camlann. Afallach himself appears in Arthurian legends as King Evelake.Aine - (AN-yuh or AW-ne)
Ireland; a woman of the Leanan Sidhe (Sweetheart of the Sidhe). Some said she was the daughter of Manannan, some said she was the Morrigan herself. There was a stone, Cathair Aine, belonging to her and if anyone sat on the stone, they would be in danger of losing their wits, sit three times and they would lose them forever. Aine was very revengeful, and it was not a safe thing to offend her.Aine of Knocaine
Ireland (Aine Cliach, Aine na gClair ) - Aine was said to be the daughter of Fer I (Man of the Yew) and the queen of the South Munster fairies, living at Knockany (Cnoc Aine - 'Aine's hill'). From the Old Irish aine "brilliance, wit, splendor, glory"; "joy", "brightness", "fasting", "praise", or "radiance."Amaethon
Wales; god of agriculture, son of the goddess Dôn and brother of Gwydion. In one account he stole a dog, lapwing and roebuck from Arawn, the Welsh god of the dead, resulting in a war between Amaethon and his kin (the Children of Dôn) and the underworld deities led by Arawn. In the Battle of Cath Godeau (Battle of the Trees), Amaethon's brother Gwydion transformed trees into warriors with whose help the deities of the underworld were defeated.Anu
Dôn was known, in the Celtic World, by several similar names: Danu or Anu being the most popular alternatives. She was a Mother-Goddess, the wife of Beli Mawr (the Great) and considered to be the ancestor of all the Gods, the Tuatha dé Danann, who found themselves obliged to the reside in the Otherworld when Miled brought the Celts to the British Isles. She still looks down on us from the night's sky where she appears as Llys Dôn, better known as Casseopeia. Dôn was especially popular in Munster, though her most lasting memorial is a mountain in County Kerry called the Dá Chích Anann or "Breast of Anu". The Dane Hills in Leicestershire are also named after her and this area, perhaps a major centre for her cult, is where her memory lives on as Black Annis. This hideous old crone's habit of eating young children was, no doubt, invented by incoming Christians to blacken the name of the Celtic Goddess. In Christendom, the lady usually took on the guise of St. Anne, however, in order to smooth the path of conversion. This saint's popularity in Brittany probably stems from the previous worship of the Celtic Goddess there. Dôn was also the patroness of springs and fountains, hence the numerous St.Anne's Wells throughout Britain today. Early medieval historians confused Dôn (alias Anu) with Anna, the daughter of St.Joseph of Arimathea. In Arthurian legend she probably appears as Annowre, a sorceress who imprisoned Arthur in the Perilous Forest.Balor
The Red Mother of All, Major Mother Goddess of Ireland, Mother of the Gods and Patroness of wizards, rivers, water, wells, prosperity and plenty, Magick and wisdom. Sometimes she is The Dagda's wife; othertimes his daughter.
Balor, Irish (Celtic) god of death, King of the Fomori. Son of Buarainech, husband of Cethlenn (Cathlionn). He was know as Balor "of the Mighty Blows". Balor had one eye which had the power of striking dead anyone who looked upon it. This was the well known "evil eye" found throughout Celtic lore. At the Battle of Mag Tuireadh (Moytura) he slew the De Danann king, Nuada, as well as Macha but was slain in turn by their battle leader Lugh. This fulfilled an ancient prophecy. The Druids had prophesied that Balor would be killed by his own grandson. To prevent this, he had his only daughter Ethlinn locked within a crystal tower on Tory Island. But Cian, one of the rival Tuatha De Danann, managed to romance Ethlinn with the aid of a druidess named Birog, and slept with her. Ethlinn gave birth to a boy, whom Balor discovered and threw into the sea. The druidess Birog saved this boy, who was subsequently fostered by the sea god Manannan mac Lir, and the boy grew to become Lugh Lamhfada of the Long Arm, or Lug.Bile
Bile (Bel, Beli, Beli Mawr, called by the Romans Belenus, Belinus, Belenos), "Shining" or "Fair Shining One". A widespread Celtic god, of fire and/or of the sun. He was worshiped from northern Italy to Britain. He is sometimes associated with the Irish god Bile though this is not certain. His festival was Beltaine on May 1 (actually on the Full Moon in Taurus). The two sacred fires of Bel (Bile?) were lit using a "fire drill" by the Druids. At this time, cattle were driven through the "fire mouth" to purify them from disease and to prepare themfor the summer pastures. Belenus was naturally identified with Apollo by the more RomanizedGauls (though the Irish assign this role to Lugh or even to Grian, the Sun Goddess). As Beli he isthe Welsh god of Death. Similar to Bile and the husband of Don/Danu. As Bile he is known as the father of gods and men and perhaps cognate with the Gaulish god Dis. In this role he is said to be the husband of Danu, mother of the gods. In some Irish genealogies Bile is said to be the father of Milesius the leader of the Gael from Spain. (Spain is usually another name used for the Otherworld in Irish mythology.) In Ireland, Bile is the name given to the Sacred Tree. This Sacred Tree is considered to be the center of the clan or Tuatha. As such, it represents the connection between the people and the three worlds of Bith: The Skyworld, The Middleworld, and The Otherworld. Bile or Bile,Bel, Belenos represents the father and protector of the people and is truly the husband of the great Mother Goddess.Boann
A Celtic God of the Sun, representing the curative powers of the Sun’s heat. His festival of Beltane, when bonfires were lit to welcome in the Summer and encourage the Sun’s warmth, was held on May 1st, and is remembered in today's May Day festivities. His symbols were the horse (as shown, for example, by the clay horse figurine offerings at Beli’s Sainte-Sabine shrine in Burgundy), and also the Wheel (as illustrated on the famous Gundestrup Cauldron). Perhaps, like Apollo, whom he became identified with, Beli was thought to ride the Sun across the sky in a horse-drawn chariot. Indeed, a Celtic model horse and wagon, carrying a gilded sun-disc, has been found at Trundholm in Denmark. Sometimes he is illustrated riding a single horse, throwing thunder-bolts (hence an occasional idenification with Jupiter) and using his symbolic radiating wheel as a shield, as he tramples the chthonic forces of a snake-limbed giant. This personification is similar to the classic depiction of the Archangel St.Michael defeating the Devil. Sacred pagan hills associated with Beli, are thought to have had their dedications transferred to this saint (or sometimes St.George) by the early Christians. Well known examples include St.Michael’s Mount (Cornwall) and the churches of St.Michael on Brent Tor (Devon), and Burrow Mump and Glastonbury Tor (Somerset): All on a supposed ley line that faces the Rising Sun at Beltane. He may also have been worshipped on Dragon Hill below the great Uffington White Horse in Berkshire.
Boann (Boand, Boannan), "She of the white cattle". Irish goddess of the River Boyne. Wife of the water god Nechtain (or of Elcmar in some tales). Both Nechtain and Elcmar are associated with the Boyne river and its famous Brugh. Also the consort of the Dagda, by whom she was the mother of the love god Aonghus mac n'Og. In her folly, she attempted to challenge the Well of Segais. This involved chanting an "amrun" while going around the well in a tuaisceart or tuathal, (both of which mean widdershins, counterclockwise, or against the sun) direction. She circled the well three times AGAINST the Sun. The well rose against her incantations. Three waves rose up from the well, flowed forth in five streams and drowned her. Being of the Sidhe, she did not die but lost an arm, a leg and an eye in her battle with the well. The five streams of wisdom that flowed forth from this well are the five senses: Taste, smell, feeling, sight and hearing. In her contention with theWell of Segais, Boann suffered the druidic/shamanic death" of drowning but because she couldnot truly die (being a spirit and a goddess of the Sidhe), she gained the Wisdom of Conla/Segais asit swept her away. Boann is a Goddess of fertility and the stars. She connects the Way of the White Cow to the White Mound of the Boyne. It is also my opinion that Boann is a version of the Mother Goddess Danu (there are similarities to the names). She is the mate of The Dagda and it is she that gives her name to the preeminent brugh in all of Ireland, Brugh na Boinne.Bres
Bres (Bress), "Beauty", Irish (Celtic) god of fertility and agriculture, briefly a leader of the Tuatha De Danann and husband of the goddess Brighid and father of Ruadan. His mother was Eriu (or Brighid in some tales), the Goddess of Sovereignty, his father Elatha, king of the Fomore. He possessed great beauty ("As beautiful as Bres" was a common saying.) As newly elected chief of the Tuath De', Bres parlayed with Sreng, the battle leader of the Firbolg. He suggested they divide Ireland between the two peoples. No agreement was reached and the first Cath Magh Tuireadh occurred. He succeeded Nuada as king of Ireland after the former lost a hand at the first battle of Magh Tuireadh. Due to his lack of hospitality Bres proved to be an unworthy ruler. He was deposed in favor of Nuada, once the latter had a temporary silver hand replaced by a real one, making him fitto rule once more. Bres fled into exile and rallied the Fomoire against the De Danann. When theFomoire were defeated at the second battle of Mag Tuireadh, Bres was captured during the battle.His life was spared by Lugh when he promised to instruct the De Danann in the art of agriculture.He is responsible for the flow of milk from cattle as well. He is a major God of Agriculture. Bres's lack of hospitality may well be associated with the bleak end of Winter's harest weather, when supplies would have been low (or non-existant). He directly contrasts with the hospitality of the home and hearth that is associated with his wife, Brighid.Brighid
Brighid, Breo Saighead (Fiery Arrow or Power) Often called the Triple Brighid or the Triple Mother. Also Associated with Danu at times. The daughter of the Dagdha. She was said to have been married to Bres prior to his banishment from the Tuath De'. Goddess of the Sacred Flame of Kildare. Goddess of poets, feminine crafts, the hearth, martial arts, healing and inspiration. The White Maiden aspect of the Triple Goddess. Her Feast is the Major Celtic Festival of Imbolc. She who gives hope and new beginnings. The Celtic Church could not replace her, so they absorbed her as the "foster-mother" of Christ and as St. Brigit, the daughter of the Druid Dougal the Brown. Brighid is very like the Greek Goddess Athena, a Goddess of Wisdom, yet she also has the nuturing warmth of the heart, the home and the hearth within Her.Cailleach
Cailleach, Cailleach Bheara, Bui, This is the "Old Woman" of Beara who went through seven youthful periods. She was said to be a giantess and to have dropped many large boulders from her apron as she walked across the land. Her home was the Beara penisula of the Southwest of Ireland. Another name for her was Bui ("yellow"). Under this name she was one of the wives of Lugh. She can be a Hag or a beautiful maiden and represents Sovereignty and renewal.Ceridwen
Ceridwen (Cerridwen) was the Welsh goddess of fertility. She was the mother of Afagddu, who was the ugliest man in the whole world. To try and compensate for his ugliness, Ceridwen boiled a cauldron of knowledge for a year and a day, so Afagddu could become the wisest of all and thus be respected. She told Gwion Bach it would be his duty to tend to the cauldron. However Afagddu was denied the prophetic gift, when a drop of the liquid fell on Gwion Bach's finger and unthinkingly he stuck it in his mouth and sucked it off. Furious, Ceridwen hunted him down and eventually ate him. Later, however, he was reincarnated as Taliesin, who became the greatest of all the Welsh bards.Crom Dubh
Crom, Crom Dubh, Crom Cruach, "The Dark, Bent One". He was the God that delivered the grain from the fields and the bounty of the harvest from the Underworld. Crom Dubh is stooped from carrying sheaves of wheat to mankind from the Otherworld and dark from his time spent in the underworld sidhe of Aine. He emerges from the Otherworld on about August 1, the beginning of the harvest. (He is the god most associated with Lughnasadh to the Irish, Scottish and Manx.) This sheaf is sometimes said to be golden Ethne, a corn child (a corn dolly, Ethne means "seed" or "corn"). This connection with Ethne is also associated with Aine as well. Crom is sometimes said to wrestle Lugh or Finn for the gold of the harvest and the rays of the Sun. During the Fall and after the Harvest, bull sacrifices were made to him to insure a good harvest. He is associated with the great stone circle called "The Lios" in Munster, close by Lough Gur. At times he was seen as an adversary but most times he was considered a friend. He was also seenwalking the fields with Ethne on his shoulders. Some say that he was an aspect of The Dagda. Ifthis is so, then it was perhaps he that mated with the Morrigan at Samhain each year. Crompossessed a bull that was said to be immortal. As sacrifices were made to Bel to assure a fertile growing season at Bealtaine (and to safe-guard the herds), so also sacrifices were made from the herds to Crom Dubh at Samhain. The people would share a morsel of the bull's flesh as Crom returned with his bull to the Underworld for the Winter. This event marked the beginning of Samhain.The Dagda
Also spelled Daghda, Dagdha. Also called "Daghda Mór", ("The Great Good God"), the title is not given in recognition of any kindliness or humanitarianism, but in recognition of his prowess, although . He carried a great iron staff, pointed on one end, rounded on the other. With one end he could kill ten men with one blow; with the other, he could bring them back to life. He also had a great cauldron that was always magically full of food.Elcmar
Consort of Boanne, guardian of the Boyne river valley. The meaning "evil one" has been suggested for his name, but the best guess that his name is just an epithet of the sea and river god Nechtan (also consort to Boanne).The Dagda
The Dagda, the Daghda, The All Father, Eochaid Ollathair ( Father of All), Ruadh Rofessa (The Red One, Lord of Occult Knowledge), Dagdha (the Good God - called that because he was powerful, not because he was necessarily kindly.) The Dagda is the eldest, wisest and mightiest of the Tuatha De. He is called the Excellent God, Many talented and powerful, Master of the harp and possessor of a dread double ended club. He also possessed a cauldron that was never empty, fruit trees that were never barren, and two pigs - one live and the other perpetually roasting. The Cauldron is called 'Never Dry', one of the Four Treasures of the Gods. It serves each their favorite food but will not serve a coward or an oath breaker. The Harp is called 'Four Cornered Music' upon which the Dagda plays the seasons' turning. The Dagda's great war-club slays with one end and grants life with the other. One of the leaders of the Tuatha De' Danann.The Goddess of Sovereignty
The Goddess of Sovereignty (Banbha, Fodla, Eriu), The Land and the King were wed through many ceremonies. Essentually the fate of the King and the fate of the land were One and vice versa. The Favor of the Goddess could be granted by some heroic act or by being Magically chosen (The Lia Fail could do this, more later). Women who held the Sovereignty of the land were often referred to as the Goddess (Such as Medb, Boudicca and Macha-Red Mane).Lludd Llaw Ereint (the Silver-Handed)
Lludd (or Nudd), called Nodens by the Romans, was the Celtic God of Healing, and the son of Beli Mawr (the Great). He had a large shrine at Lydney in Gloucestershire, where the devoted made offerings of small bronze representations of their diseased limbs. He was sometimes identified with the protective Mars or the regenerative Silvanus and his companion and symbol was the dog: a deerhound whose lick could cure the afflicted. An old story explains his connection with amputees. At one time, Lludd was the leader of the gods, but he was wounded in battle and lost his hand. Gorfannon, the divine-smith, made him a new one out of Silver, but he was still forced to abdicate in favour of his nephew, Lleu Llaw Gyffes. Later, Lludd was troubled by a constant scream that was heard the eve of every Beltane. He travelled to Gaul, where his brother, Llefelys, was particularly worshipped, to ask his advice. He explained that the cry was made by two fighting dragons. Lludd managed to capture the creatures and imprisoned them deep below Dinas Emrys. Lludd may have been particularly worshipped in London, which was said to have been named after him.Lugh
Lugh, Samildanach (many skilled). This is the Celtic Mercury. The grandson of Balor (leader of the Fomorians and the son of Cian and Ethniu, a Sidhe princess. His feast is Lughnasadh, a celebration of the death of his "foster mother", Tailtiu. He is the combination of the Tuatha De' Danann and the Fomors. He replaces Nuada as the King and battle leader of the Tuatha De' Danann and leads them to ultimate victory in the second Battle of Moytura. He is sometimes called the "Shining One" and/or Lugh Lamhfada (of the "long arm"). He also has attributes of a carpenter, mason, poet,Druid, physician and a goldsmith. He can be considered the Irish God of just about everything. He was also the father of the great Irish hero, Cuchulain.Manannan
Another source says: "Lugh is the god Lug Lamfhota, roughly meaning bright and long-armed. He is a hero of the Tuatha De Danann and his close counterpart is the Welsh god Lleu Llaw Gyffes. Significantly, Lugh may be one character of a triple- aspect Irish god who also encompasses the great warriors Fionn mac Cumhaill (Finn McCool) and Cuchulainn."
Manannan Mac Lir, Chief Irish God of the sea. Not a member of the Tuatha De' Danann. A happy-go-lucky gypsy type. Always carried "the Crane Bag", ` a kind of Magick "horn of plenty". He gave the last 5 Oghams to the Druids (also called the "Crane Bag"). He preferred to roam among the people in disguise and aid their exploits.He could change his shape at will. Despite his antics, he was an extremely powerful God and was usually associated with fertility, rebirth, weather, sailing and Magick. He also had a Magickal ship that moved without sails and was directed by the mind. Linked to the Isle of Man.The Morrigan
The Morrigan, The Dark aspect of the Celtic Triple Goddess. The "Washer at the Ford" (seem washing bloody laundry prior to battle by those destined to die). The Battle Goddess, also Queen of the Witches and Goddess of Magick. Could appear as a Raven, a beautiful Maiden or an ugly Hag. Marries the Dagdha at Samhain.Nuada
Nuada, The King and battle leader of the Tuatha De' Danann, Possessor of the Magick Sword of Findias, Lost his sword hand in the First Battle of Moytura, against the Fir Bolgs, stepped down from the Kingship (because the King could have no blemish) even though he was outfitted with a Magical hand of silver. He eventually had his hand Magically restored to lead the Tuatha De' Danann against the Fomors in the second Battle of Moytura. In this battle he was physically killed so he returned to the Lands of the Sidhe.Oenghus mac n'Og
Oengus mac n'Og, "The Young Son". Oengus is the son of The Dagda an Boann. It is he that was "conceived at sunrise and born before dusk" in a single day at the Brugh na Boinne. He was raised by his foster father Midir at Bri Leith until he was reunited with The Dagda. Oengus was able to obtain the Brugh na Boinne for himself by the use of the same "year and a day" Magick that The Dagda had used. He also was a God of Love and Life. He wooed Caer Ibormeith as a swamn and flew withher every other year at Lough Bel Dracon. Oengus is frequently able to give advice that is beyond his years (reference his Ogham list given later in this paper). He is also associated with dreams and the Soul. Oengus is the new son of the Sun's rebirth at the Brugh na Boinne each Winter's Solstice. He has the gift of Life within his Breath and can restore the Dead to Life.Ogma
Ogma, The "Sun Faced" One, ("Grian-aineach"), so called because he was a God of Wisdom and of speech. He invented the Ogham and was also a great Warrior. He was Nuada's battle champion. Sometimes associated with the Greek Herakles. He was one of the main challengers to Lugh during the rites of admission to the company of Tara. He was the possessor of Orna, the talking sword of Tethra. Also Irish God of music, spells, the arts and eloquence.Scathach
Scathach, "She Who Strikes Fear". The Shadow self that walks the Mists. The Irish/Scottish Goddess of martial arts. The Destroyer aspect of the Dark Goddess. A great sword warrior and instructor. Native to the Isle of Skye. Teacher of CuChulainn. Patroness of martial arts, prophecy, blacksmiths and magic. She lived on the otherside of a bottomless pit or "void" that could only be approached by making the "salmon leap" onto her Magical bridge. She taught CuChulainn the "feat of the Gae Bolga", a spear that was thrown with the foot through a stream of water..Tailtiu
Irish; Tailtiu, Daughter of the King of Spain, Magh Mor and wife of Eochaidh Mac Erc, a Firbolg king. She was the foster mother of Lugh. She died clearing the forest of Breg so that the fields could be used for agriculture. She was buried at Tailtenn and it is the funerary games that Lugh held for her that is now known as Lughnasadh. She is a primal earth Goddess and a patroness of the crops and herds.